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Acne is not just a problem for teenagers, it can affect people from ages 10 through 40. It is not unusual for women, in particular, to develop acne in their mid-to-late 20’s. Acne can appear as any of the following:
Blackheads – are caused by partially blocked pores. The “black” appearance of them is not caused by dirt, but by the melanin pigment from the dead skin cells.
Whiteheads – are caused by completely blocked pores. The white appearance of them is caused by the bacteria inside the blocked pore turning the sebum to “free fatty acid”.
Papules – are small, red, tender bumps or spots.
Pustules – are larger, red and inflamed pus-filled spots.
Nodules – are large hard bumps under the skin’s surface.
Cysts – are similar to nodules, but can be deeply inflamed and infected.
These blemishes occur wherever there are many oil (sebaceous) glands, mainly on the face, chest, and back.
You can do a lot to treat your acne using products available at a drugstore or cosmetic counter that do not require a prescription. However, for more serious cases of acne, you should consult a doctor.
No one factor causes acne. Acne happens when oil (sebaceous) glands come to life around puberty stimulated by male hormones from the adrenal glands of both boys and girls. Oil is a natural substance which lubricates and protects the skin, and under certain circumstances, cells that are close to the surface block the openings of sebaceous glands and cause a buildup of oil underneath. This oil stimulates bacteria, (which live in everyone’s skin and generally cause no problems), to multiply and cause surrounding tissues to become inflamed.
If the inflammation is right near the surface, you get a pustule; if it’s deeper, a papule (pimple); deeper still and it’s a cyst. If the oil breaks though to the surface, the result is a “whitehead.” If the oil becomes oxidized (that is, acted on by oxygen in the air), the oil changes from white to black, and the result is a “blackhead.”
Some factors that don’t usually cause acne, at least by themselves are:
Heredity: With the exception of very severe acne, most people do not have the problem exactly as their parents did. Almost everyone has some acne at some point in their life.
Food: All over the world, parents tell teens to avoid pizza, chocolate, greasy and fried foods, and junk food. While these foods may not be good for overall health, they don’t cause acne or make it worse.
Dirt: Some individuals have more “oily” skin than others (as mentioned above, “Blackheads” are oxidized oil, not dirt). Sweat does not cause acne, therefore, it is not necessary to shower instantly after exercise for fear that sweat will clog pores. On the other hand, excessive washing can dry and irritate the skin.
Stress: Some people get so upset by their pimples that they pick at them and make them last longer. Stress, however, does not play much of a direct role in causing acne.
Hormones: Some women break out cyclically, but most women (and men) don’t. Some oral contraceptive pills may help relieve acne, but unless a woman has abnormal menstrual periods and excessive hair growth, it’s unlikely that hormones play much of a role in causing acne.
Cosmetics: Most cosmetic and skin care products are not pore-clogging (“comedogenic.”) Of the many available brands, those which are listed as “water-based” or “oil-free” are generally a better choice.
In occasional patients, contributing factors may be:
Pressure: In some patients, pressure from helmets, chinstraps, collars, and the like can aggravate acne.
Drugs: Some medications may cause or worsen acne, such as those containing iodides, bromides, or oral or injected steroids (either the medically prescribed prednisone or the steroids bodybuilders or athletes take.) Most cases of acne, however, are not drug-related.
Occupations: In some jobs, exposure to industrial products like cutting oils may produce acne.
Sebum: The semifluid secretion of the sebaceous glands, consisting chiefly of fat, keratin, and cellular material.
Spots: a small round mark on the skin, different in colour or texture from the surface. Blemish: a mark that spoils something that is beautiful.
Bumps: a swelling on the body.
Pimple: a small raised spot on the skin.
According to the text:
Circle the only correct letter according to the text:
Match the factors with their correct explanation:
It is becoming more and more important to eat the right food.
Experts say that the type of food you eat can damage your health. If you eat the right food, you will have a better chance of living a long and healthy life.
If you eat a lot of processed food, you will be more likely to have problems with your health. If people eat food with a lot of fat in it, they will have a greater risk of getting heart disease.
In some countries, people eat less fat in their diet. Scientists have shown that fewer people get heart disease in these countries. In Spain and Italy, for example, most people have less fat in their diets than people in England. And in England, the rate of heart disease is double the rate in Spain or Italy.
So if you eat less fatty food, you’ll live longer. You’ll feel better, feel fitter, and have more energy if you change to a simpler and healthier diet.
From: Break into English
According to the text, what sort of food is BAD for you? Circle the only correct letter.
According to the text, what happens in countries where the diet is high in fat? Circle the only correct letter.
The text says that in Spain people eat __________ than in England.
Circle the only correct letter to complete the space.
From Susan Blackmore
In his article on computers and consciousness, Igor Aleksander was quite wrong to say that “Susan Blackmore…implies that constructing a machine that is conscious like us would be impossible” (19 July, p 40).
I do indeed claim that consciousness is an illusion. This is because it feels to us humans as though there is a continuous flow of experiences happening to an inner self, when in fact, there is no such inner self.
Computers have no inner self either, but if ever they start thinking they do they will become deluded like us, and hence conscious like us. And that day is surely not far off. We humans can sometimes wake up from our delusion, through intellectual insight or through practices like meditation. Maybe future computers will teach us a thing or two about waking up from illusion.
The author of the text criticizes
In her letter to the editor, Susan Blackmore claims that
Susan Blackmore says that
According to the text, one day