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“In Brazil, countryside youth want to learn about new places, new cultures and people. However, they think their everyday lives are an obstacle to that, because they imagine that country life has nothing to do with other parts of the world”, says Rafael Fonseca. Rafael teaches English in a language school in a cooperative coffee cultivation in Paraguaçu. His learners are the children of rural workers.
Rafael tells us that the objective of the project being developed in the cooperative is to give the young people more opportunities of growth in the countryside, and that includes the ability to communicate with international buyers. “In the future, our project may help overcome the lack of succession in countryside activities because, nowadays, rural workers’ children become lawyers, engineers, teachers, and sometimes even doctors, but those children very rarely want to have a profession related to rural work”, says Rafael.
“That happens”, he adds, “because their parents understand that life in the countryside can be hard work and they do not want to see their children running the same type of life that they have. Their children also believe that life in the country does not allow them to have contact with other parts of the world, meet other people and improve cultural bounds. The program intends to show them that by means of a second language they can travel, communicate with new people and learn about new cultures as a means of promoting and selling what they produce in the country, and that includes receiving visitors in their workplace from abroad.”
Rafael’s strategy is to contextualize the English language and keep learners up-to-date with what happens in the global market. “Integrating relevant topics about countryside living can be transformative in the classroom. The local regional and cultural aspects are a great source of inspiration and learning not only for the young, but for us all.”
Adapted from http://www.cambridge.org/elt/blog/2019/01/21/teaching-english-in-the-brazilian-classroom/
In the sentence “… our project may help overcome the lack of succession in countryside activities…” (paragraph 2), the word overcome means
Choose the alternative with the correct reference for the underlined words from the text.
According to the text, read the statements and choose the correct alternative.
Italian children have been told not to turn up to school unless they can prove they have been properly vaccinated. The deadline follows months of national debate over compulsory vaccination. The new law came amid a surge in measles cases – but Italian officials say vaccination rates have improved since it was introduced. Children must receive a range of mandatory immunisations before attending school. They include vaccinations for chickenpox, polio, measles, mumps and rubella.
Children up to the age of six years will be excluded from nursery and kindergarten without proof of vaccination under the new rules. Those aged between six and 16 cannot be banned from attending school, but their parents face fines if they do not complete the mandatory course of immunisations.
Italian media report that regional authorities are handling the situation in a number of different ways. In Bologna, the local authority has set letters of suspension to the parents of some 300 children, and a total of 5,000 children do not have their vaccine documentation up to date. In other areas there have been no reported cases, while still others have been given a grace period of a few days beyond the deadline.
The new law was passed to raise Italy’s dropping vaccination rates from below 80% to the World Health Organisation’s 95% target.
Adapted from https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-47536981
Choose the most appropriate title for the text.
Choose the statement in which the word range is used with the same meaning as in paragraph 1.
In the sentence “…while still others have been given a grace period of a few days…” (paragraph 3), the expression grace period means
The Lego Group wants to replace the plastic in their products with a “sustainable material” by 2030, the company announced.
The world’s largest toy company will invest $1 billion in their new LEGO Sustainable Materials Centre in Denmark, which _______(1) devoted to finding and implementing new sustainable alternatives for their current building materials. Lego plans on hiring 100 specialists for the center. There is no official definition of a sustainable material.
Legos _______(2) made with a strong plastic known as acrylonitrile butadiene styrene since 1963. The company uses more than 6,000 tons of plastic annually to manufacture its products, according to NBC News.
Changing the raw material could have a large effect on Lego’s carbon footprint, especially considering that only 10% of the carbon emissions from Lego products come from its factories. The other 90% is produced from the extraction and refinement of raw materials, as well as distribution from factories to toy stores.
The company _______(3) already taken steps to lower its carbon footprint, including a reduction of packaging size and an investment in an offshore wind farm.
Adapted from http://time.com/3931946/lego-sustainable-materials/
In the sentence “Changing the raw material could have a large effect on Lego’s carbon footprint…” (paragraph 4), the expression carbon footprint means
Choose the alternative containing the correct verb forms to complete gaps (1), (2) and (3) in paragraphs 2, 3 and 5 respectively.
According to the text, choose the correct statement.
Tatiane Correia de Lima is a 26-year-old mother of two who is serving a 12-year sentence in Brazil. The South American country has the world’s fourth largest prison population and its jails regularly come under the spotlight for their poor conditions, with chronic overcrowding and gang violence provoking deadly riots.
Lima had just been moved from a prison in the mainstream penitential system to a facility run ______(1) the Association for the Protection and Assistance to Convicts (APAC) in the town of Itaúna, in Minas Gerais state. Unlike in the mainstream system, “which steals your femininity”, as Lima puts it, at the APAC jail she is allowed to wear her own clothes and have a mirror, make-up and hair dye. But the difference between the regimes is far more than skin-deep.
The APAC system has been gaining growing recognition as a safer, cheaper and more humane answer to the country’s prison crisis. All APAC prisoners must have passed through the mainstream system and must show remorse and be willing to follow the strict regime of work and study which is part of the system’s philosophy. There are no guards or weapons and visitors are greeted by an inmate who unlocks the main door to the small women’s jail.
Inmates are known as recuperandos (recovering people), reflecting the APAC focus ______(2) restorative justice and rehabilitation. They must study and work, sometimes in collaboration with the local community. If they do not – or if they try to abscond – they risk being returned to the mainstream system. There have been physical fights but never a murder at an APAC jail.
Adapted from https://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-44056946
Choose the alternative containing the correct words to respectively complete gaps (1) and (2).
In the sentence “But the difference between the regimes is far more than skin-deep.” (paragraph 2), the expression skin-deep means
According to the text, choose the correct statement.