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Gen. Martin E. Dempsey, the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, is leading important changes following recent scandals involving high-ranking officers. This is part of training and development programs for generals and admirals. They will include new courses to train the security detail, executive staffs and even the spouses of senior officers.
Saying he was disturbed about the misconduct issues, General Dempsey said that evaluations of top officers needed to go beyond the traditional assessment of professional performance by superior officers alone. He said that he had decided the changes were necessary “to assess both competence and character in a richer way”.
“You can have someone of incredible character who can’t lead their way out of a forward operating base because they don’t have the competence to understand the application of military power, and that doesn’t do me any good”, General Dempsey said. “Conversely, you can have someone who is intensely competent in the skills of the profession, but doesn’t live a life of character. And that doesn’t do me any good.”
General Dempsey said that regular professional reviews would be transformed from top-down assessments to the kind of “360-degree performance evaluation”, which includes feedback from subordinates, peers and superiors. For the new training programs, he said that while it may be impossible to prevent infractions, “most officers need to be reminded of the rules and regulations on a routine basis”.
Teams of inspectors will observe and review the procedures of commanders and their staffs. The inspections will not be punitive, but will provide a “periodic opportunity for general officers to understand whether, from an institutional perspective, we think they are inside or outside the white lines”, he said. In addition, new programs will be instituted to ensure that a commander’s staff, and a spouse, are fully aware of military regulations.
“In my 39 years in the military, I have learned that you are not a profession just because you say you are. You have to earn it and re-earn it and re-evaluate it from time to time”, General Dempsey said.
Adapted from www.nytimes.com/2013/04/14/us
According to the Macmillan English Dictionary Online, the word issue has the following definitions. Read them and answer the question below.
According to the text, which definition above corresponds to issue in the sentence “…he was disturbed about the misconduct issues…” (paragraph 2)?
Which word is a synonym for evaluations in the text?
In the sentence “Conversely, you can have…” (paragraph 3), the word conversely indicates that the two situations described in the paragraph
According to the text, a 360-degree performance evaluation (paragraph 4)
A Japanese soldier who refused to surrender after World War Two ended and spent 29 years in the jungle has died aged 91 in Tokyo. Hiroo Onoda remained in the jungle on Lubang Island near Luzon, in the Philippines, until 1974 because he did not believe that the war had ended. He was finally persuaded to emerge after his ageing former commanding officer was flown in to see him. Onoda was greeted as a hero on his return to Japan.
The young soldier had orders not to surrender – a command he obeyed for nearly three decades. “I became an officer and I received an order. If I could not carry it out, I would feel shame. I am very competitive”, he said. Three other soldiers were with him at the end of the war. One emerged from the jungle in 1950 and the other two died.
Mr Onoda ignored several attempts to get him to surrender. He later said that he dismissed search parties sent to him, and leaflets dropped by Japan, because there was always something suspicious, so he never believed that the war had really ended. Though Onoda had been officially declared dead in December 1959, search parties were sent out in 1972, when the last person from his group was killed by local police, but they did not find him. Onoda was now alone.
On February 20, 1974, a Japanese man, Norio Suzuki, found Onoda after four days of searching. They became friends, but Onoda still refused to surrender, saying that he was waiting for orders from a superior officer. Suzuki returned to Japan with photographs of himself and Onoda as proof of their encounter, and the Japanese government located Onoda’s commanding officer, Major Yoshimi Taniguchi. He flew to Lubang where on March 9, 1974, he finally met with Onoda and rescinded his original orders in person.
The Philippine government granted him a pardon, although many in Lubang never forgave him for killing 30 people during his campaign on the island. The news media reported on this and other misgivings, but at the same time welcomed his return home.
Adapted from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-25772192 and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hiroo_Onoda
According to the text, read the statements and choose the correct alternative.
In the sentence “The news media reported on this and other misgivings…” (paragraph 5), this refers to
Shopping Metrô Itaquera, a gleaming mall amid the favelas (shantytowns) of eastern São Paulo, gained notoriety on January 11th, when the police used rubber bullets and tear gas to disperse a crowd of 3,000 youths. The youngsters were participating in a rolezinho, a gathering of tens, hundreds, and sometimes thousands of youngsters which is convened via social networks.
Mall owners and shopkeepers have reasons to be cautious. A few rolezinhos have led to muggings and robberies. But most do not end in Itaquera-like chaos: the word’s true meaning is closer to “little outing”. And theories that rolezeiros are class warriors or favela dwellers tired of the country’s veiled racism are not correct. “Their battle cry is not ‘Less oppression!’” says Renato Barreiros, who has directed a documentary about them. “It’s ‘More Adidas!’”
The point of a rolezinho is “to hang out, chill, buy nice things, meet people”, explains Vinicius Andrade, a 17-year-old from Capão Redondo, a favela in western São Paulo. He has taken part in 18 big rolezinhos and helped organise a few, drawing some of his 89,000 Facebook followers. His 15-year-old girlfriend, Yasmin Oliveira, a rolezeiro sweetheart with 94,000 fans of her own on the social network, says that shopping centres make good meeting places because they are safe – an important consideration in a crime-ridden city. There are few other public venues for kids, especially in poorer neighbourhoods.
As well as air conditioning, shopping centres also confer something no open-air space can: status. Rolezeiros enjoy walking around in a branded T-shirt and bermudas, with a pair of 400- reais ($170) shades perched on a baseball cap. Vinicius confesses to spending 800-1,000 reais a month on clothes and accessories, most of what he makes as a helper at a local Adventist church. Just 8% of Itaquera shoppers enjoy a monthly income in excess of 2,780 reais. Some rolezeiros support their flashy lifestyle by reselling outmoded attire to poorer neighbours.
Shopkeepers in the local malls have mixed feelings about the gatherings. On the one hand, the youngsters make ideal clients: they often pay cash and can spend 2,000-3,000 reais in one go. On the other, larger groups can scare away customers.
Adapted from http://www.economist.com
Another title for this article could be
In the sentence “Some rolezeiros support their flashy lifestyle by reselling outmoded attire to poorer neighbours.” (paragraph 4), the expression outmoded attire means
In the sentence “…shopping centres make good meeting places because they are safe…” (paragraph 3), the word they refers to
In 2012, Candy Crush was released on Facebook and was later converted to smartphone format for people to play on the go. In 2013, the game reached real prominence and became the most popular game on Facebook. It’s no surprise then that so many people play this game on their phones. Candy Crush Saga has changed the way many of us kill time on commutes, or even in the toilet. I don’t remember the last train journey I took where at least one person wasn’t playing Candy Crush on their phone. I’m sure almost every reader of this article will have either been invited or invited others to play Candy Crush via Facebook in an effort to get more lives or even levels.
Despite being incredibly similar to many games over the years, Candy Crush Saga has added new depth to the genre, with seemingly unlimited combinations of new scenarios and concepts. So, this mixture of simplicity and variety is what makes Candy Crush so unbelievably popular.
As a result, Candy Crush Saga shows no signs of slowing down. New levels are generally released via the Facebook version every three weeks, with new levels also being made frequently available for the smartphone version. With 6.7 million active users, the developers are rumoured to be earning $633,000 per day from Candy Crush users.
Adapted from http://metro.co.uk/2013/09/27/
In the sentence “Candy Crush Saga has changed the way many of us kill time on commutes…” (paragraph 1), the expression kill time on commutes means
In the sentence “I don’t remember the last train journey I took where at least one person wasn’t playing Candy Crush on their phone.” (paragraph 1), the author means
According to the text, the popularity of Candy Crush Saga is because